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All machines require power to perform specific tasks, and two of the most efficient types of power for machines are pneumatics and hydraulics.
Hydraulics operates on the principle of fluid pressure, where a pump compresses fluids, conduits carry fluids to the targeted section of a machine, and a piston generates the expected effect. The benefits of hydraulics include the fact that the liquid used in the system does not absorb energy, they can move very heavy loads and provide higher forces due to the incompressibility of liquid, they are highly responsive compared to pneumatics, and they can perform multiple tasks at any one time, such as cooling, transmitting power, and lubricating.
Pneumatics, on the other hand, use gas instead of fluid, and the compressed air is forced through pipes to specific tools. Pneumatics are mainly used for hand tools that perform repetitive motions, such as jackhammers. The advantages of using pneumatics include their simple design and application, safety compared to hydraulics, and high reliability due to their long operating lifespan and resistance to shock damage.
Both pneumatics and hydraulics have their unique advantages and are used for different applications depending on the specific needs of the machine or task.